[Oz-teachers] Expert Learners
stephen at melbpc.org.au
stephen at melbpc.org.au
Wed Jan 26 13:27:37 EST 2011
Thanks Tony .. for example, perhaps a useful reminder ..
"How can we help novice learners become more expert learners?"
**Novice Learners versus Expert Learners**
Lets look at the difference between novice and expert learners ..
■Novices typically don't plan, monitor, and reflect on their learning
◦These metacognitive skills include setting goals and subgoals;
identifying approaches; monitoring one's progress to the task; revising
goals where necessary; and, reflection after task completion.
■Expert learners use 'multiple representations'
◦to build a fuller, more complete understanding. And, of course
multimedia allows for this - text, graphics, sound, dynamic models.
■Novices typically don't generate numbers of potential solution strategies
◦Novices, when presented with a task, typically jump at the first idea
that comes to mind. Expert learners, on the other hand, tend to generate
and evaluate a number of potential approaches to the problem.
■Novices engage in knowledge-telling rather than knowledge-transformation
◦One 5th grade girl, Larissa, was planning to do her project on potato
production in Prince Edward Island. She was reminded, in a collaborative
journal-writing environment, that the class had studied acid rain for the
last month. Larissa was challenged to make sense of that and to determine
if acid rain had had any impact on potato production. This improvement in
her strategy was more representative of 'expert' behaviour.
■Expert learners make multiple passes at knowledge
◦Many sources should be read - books, videos, Internet, PLN (Personal
Learning Network Facebook, Twitter).
■Experts view 'mistakes' as opportunities to learn
◦'Debugging' strategies are invoked when things go wrong. Therefore, you
backtrack through your thinking - a means to 'think about one's
thinking'. Experts recognize this. Novices typically don't.
■Experts are able to transfer their learning to other domains
◦Novices don't naturally transfer their understandings to other tasks or
to other subject domains.
■Experts realize that the social context is important to learning
◦That learning takes place in a social context is a significant issue.
This is why collaboration or 'cooperative learning' has become so
popular - but it has to be more than social collaboration. Cognitive
collaboration needs to be encouraged. As students communicate their
ideas, they learn to clarify, refine, and consolidate their thinking.
Schoenfeld has said that, Groups are not just a convenient way to
accumulate the individual knowledge of their members. Groups give rise
synergistically to insights and solutions that would not come about
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